Rumination refers to the tendency to dwell on negative thoughts, events, or experiences. It involves repetitive thoughts that often focus on perceived failures, regrets, or worries about the future. Rumination can be a challenging pattern of thinking that can contribute to increased stress, anxiety, and depression if left unchecked.

Rumination can have a significant impact on mental well-being. If you have a mental illness in the family or are experiencing negative thoughts with a depressed mood, then seeking support from a mental health professional can be beneficial in understanding and addressing this pattern of thinking.

What is rumination?

Rumination refers to the repetitive and intrusive pattern of dwelling on negative thoughts, events, or experiences. It involves mentally replaying and obsessively analysing past situations, often focusing on perceived failures, regrets, or worries about the future. This unproductive cycle of overthinking and self-critical thoughts can increase stress, anxiety, and depression as it amplifies and prolongs distressing emotions. Recognising and addressing rumination is essential for promoting healthier thought patterns and overall well-being.

Is rumination similar to obsessive compulsive disorder?

While rumination and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are similar, they are distinct concepts. Here’s an overview of their differences:

Rumination typically involves repetitive and intrusive thoughts focused on negative experiences, regrets, or worries. These thoughts may be distressing but are not necessarily irrational or driven by a specific obsession or compulsion.

In contrast, OCD is characterised by obsessions, which are recurrent and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause significant anxiety. Obsessions of OCD are often irrational and are accompanied by compulsions, which are repetitive behaviours or mental acts aimed at reducing anxiety or preventing a feared outcome.

Rumination involves a pattern of repetitive thoughts where individuals dwell on past events or worry about the future. It is often associated with overthinking, procrastination and a lack of resolution. In OCD, obsessions can be persistent and intrusive, leading to significant distress. The cognitive process in OCD often involves trying to neutralise or counteract obsessions through compulsive behaviours or mental rituals.

Both rumination and OCD can amplify negative emotions. Rumination tends to prolong and intensify negative emotions associated with the initial thoughts or experiences. In OCD, obsessions trigger anxiety, and the performance of compulsions brings temporary relief. However, the relief is short-lived, and the cycle of obsessions and compulsions often continues, leading to chronic distress.

Rumination can interfere with daily functioning, leading to increased stress, reduced productivity, and impaired decision-making. However, it does not typically involve the same impairment and disruption as OCD. OCD can significantly impact various aspects of a person’s life, including relationships, work, and social functioning, as individuals may spend a significant amount of time and energy engaging in obsessions and compulsions.

Rumination is not recognised as a separate disorder in diagnostic manuals such as the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). However, it is often associated with other mental health conditions like depression and anxiety disorders. OCD, on the other hand, is a specific diagnostic category characterised by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that cause significant distress and impairment.

Here are some examples of ways people ruminate and the impact it can have on an individual:

Brooding Rumination

Brooding rumination involves:

  • Focusing on past negative experiences
  • Analysing them repeatedly
  • Dwelling on the associated emotions

It often includes self-critical thoughts and a fixation on personal shortcomings or failures. Individuals who engage in brooding rumination may struggle to let go of adverse events and find it challenging to move forward.

Task Irrelevant Rumination

This occurs when thoughts unrelated to the current task or situation intrude upon one’s attention. It can manifest as daydreaming, replaying past events, or worrying about unrelated issues during activities that require concentration. Task-irrelevant rumination can interfere with productivity and make it challenging to stay focused.

Anger Rumination

It is usually displayed as repeatedly replaying feelings of anger or resentment towards oneself or others. Individuals who experience anger rumination often dwell on perceived injustices, obsessively replaying the events that triggered their outrage. This type of rumination can maintain and intensify anger, leading to difficulties in interpersonal relationships and overall well-being.

Trait Rumination

This is a habitual tendency to ruminate on various aspects of life. It involves negative feelings that extend beyond specific events or situations. Trait rumination can contribute to chronic stress, anxiety, and a pessimistic outlook on life.

Depressive Rumination

It is typically characterised by repetitive thoughts focused on depressive symptoms, negative self-evaluations, and hopelessness. It involves an inwardly directed focus on perceived failures, regrets, and shortcomings. Depressive rumination tends to reinforce depressive symptoms and can prolong episodes of depression.

Mental Rumination

It exists as excessive mental analysis and replaying thoughts, often non-linear and unproductive. It can manifest as overthinking, getting caught in an endless loop of analysing potential outcomes, or obsessively trying to find answers to unanswerable questions. Mental rumination can lead to mental fatigue, anxiety, and a lack of clarity.

Ruminations’ role in repetitive negative thoughts

Here’s how rumination plays a role in repetitive negative thinking:


Rumination involves overthinking and excessively analysing past events or problems. Instead of letting go of negative thoughts, ruminating individuals replay and dwell on them, often without reaching a resolution or finding a way forward.

Lack of problem-solving

Compared to productive reflection, rumination tends to be unproductive and focused on the negative aspects of a situation rather than seeking solutions. It often involves replaying negative scenarios without actively working towards finding ways to improve or overcome them.

Emotional amplification

Rumination can intensify negative emotions associated with the initial experience or thought. By repeatedly replaying distressing thoughts, individuals may reinforce and prolong their negative emotional state, increasing sadness, anxiety, or frustration.

Cognitive biases

Rumination is associated with cognitive biases such as selective attention, where individuals pay more attention to negative information and overlook positive aspects of a situation. This biased focus can further perpetuate ruminating thoughts and contribute to a distorted perception of reality.


Rumination often involves self-critical thoughts and harsh self-judgment. People who ruminate tend to excessively blame themselves for negative events or outcomes, reinforcing a negative self-image and eroding self-esteem.

Escalating worry

Rumination frequently involves worrying excessively about the future. Individuals may ruminate on potential adverse outcomes or catastrophise situations, leading to heightened anxiety and anticipation of negative events that may never occur.

Lack of closure

Rumination can prevent individuals from finding closure or resolution to their concerns. Instead of moving forward, the cycle of obsessive thinking can keep individuals stuck in a loop, reinforcing distress and preventing the processing of emotions.

Ways to address ruminating thoughts

Addressing ruminating thoughts can be a gradual process that requires self-awareness and practice. Here are some strategies that can help:

Mindfulness and Awareness

Develop mindfulness skills to observe your thoughts without judgment. Notice when you are ruminating and bring your attention back to the present moment. Cultivating awareness helps you break the cycle of rumination by recognising when it occurs.

Challenge Negative Thoughts

Identify and challenge the negative or irrational thoughts underlying your rumination. Ask yourself if there is evidence to support these thoughts or if there are alternative perspectives. Practice reframing negative thoughts into more realistic and balanced ones.

Thought Stopping

When you catch yourself ruminating, use a mental cue or a physical action (like snapping a rubber band on your wrist) to interrupt the thought pattern. Then redirect your attention to a more positive or productive activity.

Engage in Problem-Solving

Instead of getting caught in a loop of rumination, shift your focus towards finding solutions or taking action. Break down the issue into manageable steps and work towards addressing it constructively.

Set Aside “Worry Time”

Designate a specific time of day as your dedicated “worry time” and limit rumination to that period. During this time, allow yourself to reflect on concerns, but redirect your attention to other activities once the time is up.

Practice Self-Compassion

Treat yourself with kindness and understanding. Recognise that rumination is a common human experience and that it takes time to change this pattern. Practice self-care, engage in activities you enjoy, and be patient with yourself throughout the process.

Distract and Engage

Engage in activities that capture your attention and redirect your focus away from rumination. This can include hobbies, physical exercise, spending time with loved ones, or engaging in activities that bring you joy and fulfilment.

Seek Support

Reach out to a mental health professional who can provide guidance and support in addressing rumination. They can help you develop personalised strategies and provide therapeutic interventions tailored to your needs.

Remember, breaking the cycle of rumination takes time and effort. Be patient with yourself and celebrate small victories along the way.

Types of professional support

Several types of professional help can be beneficial in addressing rumination, including hypnotherapy and cognitive therapy. Here are brief descriptions of these approaches and their potential benefits:

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT):

CBT is a widely used therapeutic approach that identifies and modifies negative thought patterns and behaviours. In the context of rumination, CBT can help individuals recognise and challenge irrational or unhelpful thoughts, develop more adaptive coping strategies, and learn problem-solving skills. CBT may involve techniques such as cognitive restructuring, behavioural activation, and mindfulness-based interventions.

Mindfulness-Based Therapies

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) emphasise cultivating present-moment awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of thoughts and emotions. These approaches can help individuals develop a more balanced perspective, reduce reactivity to distressing thoughts, and increase their ability to let go of rumination.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

ACT combines mindfulness techniques with strategies for accepting and letting go of distressing thoughts. It encourages individuals to clarify their values and commit to actions aligned with those values, even in the presence of negative thoughts or emotions. ACT can help individuals develop psychological flexibility and reduce the impact of rumination on their daily lives.


This therapeutic approach utilises hypnosis to access the subconscious mind and promote positive change. In the context of rumination, hypnotherapy may uncover underlying beliefs and patterns, reframe negative thinking, and encourage relaxation and self-soothing techniques. It can help individuals develop new perspectives and reduce the intensity and frequency of ruminative thoughts.